Hebden Township Historical Data

Hebden School Accounts 1883

The following is a published version of the school accounts and its subscribers for the year ending 30th April 1883. It provides an interesting insight into the financing of the school at the time. Below is a deep-zoom version of an image of the document. You should be able to use your mouse to zoom in and out and pan round the image. Following is a transcript of the salient parts of the document, with a commentary.

The Subscribers

This is the list of subscribers to the school in the year 31st March 1882 to April 1883 whose contributions accounted for over a third of the school's income. It is believed that the subscriptions were philanthropic in nature, and a considerable portion came from people outside the village. Philanthropy was a characteristic of the culture of Victorian social life - two years later over £100 was raised for the construction of the Hebden Suspension Bridge. However, there would probably have been social pressures encouraging locals to contribute towards the cost of the school.

Included in the subscribers were absentee landowners such as the Duke Of Devonshire, and Thomas Ffoster Chamberlain. Most of the non-Hebden contributors would have been included in this category, although not all such contributed. For the locals, people appeared to have subscribed according to their means. Ralph Bowdin who owned a successful business from Bridge House contributed four guineas, and the larger farmers a guinea. All the school management committee members were apparently generous, but according to the scheme set up by the Charity Commissioners in 1877 the management committee were to be the Rector of Linton, the church wardens of Hebden, and "six persons having a life interest in real property in Hebden and contributing 20s. a year to the funds of the school". Those management committee as listed in the 1883 Craven Directory are marked with an asterisk on the subscription list, although James Hodgson (1833-1890) is missing, probably because he had retired. Those contributing 10s or more were entitled to take cast a vote in elections held to fill a vacancy on the committee.

It is worth noting that there are some notable people missing from the list including Thomas Hammond, probably because of his antagonism towards the Church of England's supposed surreptitious 'acquirement' of the school.

The listed occupations are taken from the 1881 census.

Name Amount Notes
Rev. J. Walker  ‡  £1 1s 0d John Walker (1795-1883), Rector of Linton, and Trustee of the school
Rev. Canon Chamberlain £2 2s 0d Thomas Ffoster Chamberlain (1819-1897), Rector of Limber Magna, Lincolnshire. Principal land owner in Hebden
Rev. J.E. Torbett £1 1s 0d James English Torbett (1844-1922), Vicar of Hudswell, Richmond
Rev. Jeremiah Stockdale £1 0s 0d Jeremiah Stockdale (1829-1907), Vicar of Baslow, Derbyshire
The Honorable Mrs. Starkie £1 1s 0d Jemima Monica Mildred Starkie (née Tempest) (1841-1906) of Huntroyde Hall, Simonstone
Miss Lambert £2 0s 0d Possibly Agnes Ann Lambert (1835-1909), servant of Wortley. Born and died in Hebden
His Grace the Duke of Devonshire £2 0s 0d William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire (1803-1891) of Chatsworth House. Landowner in Hebden
Mr. Joseph Mason  ‡  £2 2s 0d Probably Joseph Mason (1824-1906) of Gargrave. His family used to own the textile mill. Trustee of the school
Mr. Ralph Bowdin  ‡  £4 4s 0d Ralph Bowdin (1833-1917), successful merchant based at Bridge House and Trustee of the School
Mr. Thomas Stockdale (treasurer) ‡  £2 2s 0d Thomas Stockdale (1835-1893) of Rainlands, and Treasurer of the school
Mr. David Joy  ‡  £1 1s 0d David Joy (1826-1915) of Garnshaw, and Trustee of the school
Mr. Richard Joy £1 1s 0d Richard Joy (1831-1908) of Garnshaw
Mr. William Hawley  ‡  £1 1s 0d William Hawley (1839-1910), ex-Grimwith Mining Agent, and Trustee of the school
Mr. Ellis Hardacre £1 1s 0d Ellis Hardacre (1831-1892), farmer of 421 acres
The Executors of the late Mr. J. Litton £1 1s 0d Possibly John Litton of Rylston (1795-1870) or his son (1839-1878)
Mr. Thomas Murgatroyd £1 1s 0d Probably Thomas Murgatroyd (1826-?), coal & iron merchant and farmer of Skipton
Mrs. Hardacre £1 1s 0d Maria Pickles Hardacre (née Harker) (1841-?), widow of John Hardacre (1842-1882) of Belmont
Mssrs. H. and T. Rodwell £1 1s 0d Henry (1830-1884) and Thomas (1842-1908) Rodwell, farmers of Hebden Hall
Mr. Thomas Stockdale (Skipton) £1 0s 0d Thomas Stockdale (1838-1927), Grocer of Sheep street, Skipton. Owner of land in Hebden
Mr. William Stockdale £1 0s 0d William Stockdale (b. circa 1827), Grocer of Sheep street, Skipton. Owner of land in Hebden
Mr. Anthony Joy £1 0s 0d Anthony Joy (1829-1883) of Coppergill, farmer
Mr. Richard Falshaw £1 0s 0d Richard Falshaw (1828-1908) of Bank Top, farmer
Mr. Horatio B. Joy £0 15s 0d Horatio Bowdin Joy (1835-1884) Main Street, grocer
Mr. Horatio Bowdin £0 10s 0d Horatio Bowdin (1807?-1893), farmer of Hole Bottom
Mr. Joseph Hawley £0 10s 0d Joseph Hawley (1855-1938), farmer of Long Lands, Grassington
Mr. William Thwaite £0 10s 0d William Thwaite of Grassington occupied land in Hebden in 1878
Mr. Daniel Bowdin £0 10s 0d Daniel Bowdin (1835-1920), farmer of Lone House farm
Mr. David Rodwell £0 10s 0d David Rodwell (1830-1912), farmer of Bank Top
Mrs. Herd £0 10s 0d Mary Ann Herd (née Kitching) (1826-1896), of Prospect House
Mr. James Metcalfe £0 5s 0d James Metcalfe (1815-1900), farmer of Town Hill
Mr. Robert Wellock £0 5s 0d Robert Wellock (1817-1902), farmer of Garnshaw
Mr. John Joy £0 5s 0d John Joy (1939-1904), farmer of Edge Side, Grassington
Mr. William Hebden £0 5s 0d William Henry Hebden (1852-1940), lead miner of Hebden Hall
Mr. Robert Hebden £0 5s 0d Robert Hebden (1825-1907), lead miner of Hebden Hall
Mr. William Bell £0 5s 0d William Bell (1849-1931), blacksmith of Hebden
Mr. John Longthorn £0 5s 0d John Longthorn (1833-1915), lead miner of Hebden
Mr. James Waddilove £0 5s 0d James Waddilove (1823-1899), farmer of Hebden
Mr. Benjamin Beaumont £0 5s 0d Benjamin Crook Beaumont (1854-1930), travelling salesman of Hebden
Mr. James Ashton £0 5s 0d James Ashton (1846-1823), farmer of Pickering End, Hebden
Mr. Joseph Hawley £0 5s 0d Joseph Hawley (1843-?), lead miner of Hebden in 1871, brother of William Hawley above
Mr. Thomas Wilson £0 5s 0d Thomas Wilson (?-?), innkeeper of Hebden 1882-1884, enrolled child at school in 1882
Mr. John Walker £0 5s 0d John Walker (1858-1935), of Gateup (no 1881 census entry)
Mr. Alfred Hawley £0 5s 0d Alfred Hawley (1849-?), lead miner of Hebden in 1871, brother of William Hawley above
Mr. William Moor £0 5s 0d William Moore (1833-?), farmer of Hartlington occupied land at Holes Beck, Hebden
Mr William Hill, sen. £0 5s 0d William Hill (1825-1907), Mining Agent of Green Terrace
Miss Elizabeth Bowdin £0 5s 0d Elizabeth Bowdin (1829-?), of Hole Bottom
Miss Elizabeth Joy £0 5s 0d Elizabeth Joy (1837-1894), domestic servant of Garnshaw.
Mr. Robert Hargraves £0 2s 6d Robert Hargraves (1850-1919), lead miner of Hebden
Mr. Thomas Townson £0 2s 6d Thomas Townson (1846-1913), general labourer of Hebden
Mr. Stephen Pickles £0 2s 6d Stephen Pickles (1848-1913), labourer of Hebden
Mr. Ripley Ashton £0 2s 6d Ripley Ashton (1862-1916), farm servant of Malham Moor (ex-Hebden)
Mr. William Rowe £0 2s 6d William Rowe (1852-1912), lead miner of Town Hill
Mr. William Hill. jun. £0 2s 6d William Hill (1860-1930), lead miner of Brook Row
Mr. Francis Hargraves £0 2s 6d Francis Hargraves (1837-1914), lead miner of Hebden
Mr. Thomas J. Birch £0 2s 6d Thomas Jones Birch (1836-1911), lead miner of Brook Row, Hebden
Mr. Stephen P. Kitchen £0 2s 6d Stephen Parkinson Kitching (1834-1904), annuitant of Prospect House, Hebden
Mr. William Baines £0 2s 6d William Baines (1821-1883), drainer of lands of Hebden
Subscriptions under 2s. 6d. each £0 9s 9d

The Income

Government Grant

A little less than a quarter of the school's income came from a government grant. At this time, the Government subsidised schools by conditional grants which were dependent on attendance, and on pupils attaining specified standards in the 3 Rs - reading writing, and arithmetic. This was said to have had the disadvantage of limiting the teaching to that necessary to reach the standard, at the expense of other subjects. It is known from Government documents that the grant went up considerably the following year to £49 8s.

Subscriptions

A little more than a quarter of the school's income came from voluntary subscriptions as itemised in the table above.

School Pence

A little under 20% of the school's income came from 'school pence' - a small sum bought in by the pupils each day. Although this was typically only a couple of pence a week, it was sometimes too much for the poorer families to find.

Books Sold

This presumable relates to the disposal of surplus text boks.

Loan of School

This relates to the hiring of the school outside school hours for local social events and meetings. From their minutes, it is known that the trustees of the Beckett's and Ibbotson's Charities were holding their meetings in the school in 1897, and that in 1901 the Ibbotson's Apprenticeship Charity paid the school 10s. for two meetings.

Rent

This is a mystery. The school was receiving £6 a year rent for an unknown asset. It is possible that a benefactor had donated the income from a land holding.

Balance Due to Treasurer

This indicates that the school was underfunded for the year by almost £38, and implies that Thomas Stockdale of Ranelands was lending the school the shortfall out of his own pocket.

The Expenditure

Overdraft

The first entry indicates that the school is over £42 overdrawn, almost £38 of which had accrued during the latest financial year.

School Master's Salary

The teacher at the time was William Mason, and he earned £86 8s 6d a year, the equivalent of about £12,000 today. The average salary in the UK at the time was £56 per annum.

Photograph of William John Mason (1854-1946)
William John Mason (1854-1946)

Assistant's Salary

£8 was paid to an assistant. This may have been Eden Helen Harker, who was to become William Mason's wife three years later in 1886. Eden Harker was born in Helensburgh Scotland in 1862, and in the 1881 census her father, mother, herself, and her younger sister were all recorded as being teachers. Her mother died so after, and the family moved to Grassington, from where her father originated. It is possible that she had obtained a post at Hebden School on her return to the area.

Rent

According to the accounts, the school was paying £12 a year rent. This is also a mystery. Hebden School was allocated one rood by the Enclosure Commission close to its current site. Low Green itself was granted to the "Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor of the Township of Hebden" for use as a place for exercise and recreation. It may have been that the 1 rood was inadequate for the new school, and that the managers were obliged to pay a rent for the larger footprint.