Hebden Township Historical Data

Hebden 1379 Poll Tax

Images of Richard II coins - a groat and a noble
Richard II coins - a groat and a noble

Poll taxes were used to raise revenue - mainly destined for military purposes. The 1379 poll tax, which was a contributory cause of the Peasant's Revolt in 1381, was levied on the accession of King Richard II to raise funds to re-fill the Treasury coffers, which had been emptied on French battlefields, and to maintain Calais and other maritime towns of France, then in the possession of England. It was in the form of a poll-tax on all lay persons above the age of 16 the amount of which depended on occupation. The range was from 20 nobels (£6 13s 4d) for nobility down to a groat (4d). This was the equivalent of about £4,100 and £10 respectively in today's money. Married couples were taxed as one.

The Hebden returns are interesting in that only three people paid more than the minimum, two of whom seem to have been involved cloth making, one in the fulling mill owned by Fountains Abbey. The number of poll tax paying adults was 37. There is no indication of a manorial household.

The original entries are in the first two columns of the table, and the final two columns provide a translation of the original entry. In the original 'vx~' was an abbreviation for 'uxus', or wife, and the 'j' in the tax paid was the way of representing the last 'i' in a Roman numeral.

Name Tax paid Name Tax paid
Johannes Smyth' & vx~ iiij.d. John Smyth & wife 4d
Walterus Batty & vx~ iiij.d. Walter Batty & wife 4d
Simud' Smyth' & vx~ iiij.d. Simud' (?) Smyth & wife 4d
Henricus Pert & vx~ iiij.d. Henry Pert & wife 4d
Willelmus Malghom & vx~ iiij.d. William Malghom & wife 4d
Robertus Wattsoñ & vx~ iiij.d. Robert Watson & wife 4d
Johannes Yoly & vx~ iiij.d. John Yoly & wife 4d
Thomas Lange & vx~ iiij.d. Thomas Lange & wife 4d
Henricus Batte senior & vx~ iiij.d. Henry Batte senior & wife 4d
Henricus Batte junior & vx~ iiij.d. Henry Batte junior & wife 4d
Johannes Batte & vx~ iiij.d. John Batte & wife 4d
Dionisius de Hebdeyn, Tyngtor, & vx~ xij.d. Dennis of Hebden, dyer, & wife 1s 0d
Robertus Magornays, Cowper, & vx~ vj.d. Robert Magornays, cooper, & wife 6d
Edmundus Bland', Walker', & vx~ vj.d. Edmond Bland, cloth fuller, & wife 6d
Seruient' - Johanna de Kendall' iiij.d. Joanna of Kendall - servant (?) 4d
Johannes Battesoñ iiij.d. John Batteson 4d
Willelmus Stag iiij.d. William Stag 4d
Alicia filia Matilda iiij.d. Alice, daughter of Matilda 4d
Agnes filia Batte iiij.d. Agnes, daughter of Batte 4d
Katerina filia Roberti iiij.d. Catherine, daughter of Robert 4d
Agnes Henri Batte doghter iiij.d. Agnes daughter of Henry Batte (?) 4d
Agnes seruiens Joly Johan iiij.d. Agnes, servant of John Joly 4d
Agnes Stagwyff iiij.d. Agnes Stagwyffe 4d
Summa viij.s. viij.d. Total 8s 8d